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A polyethylene melt is flowing through a 3-m-long pipe (diameter 0.05 m) with a volumetric flow rate of 9.4 x lop4 m3/s. Pharmaceutical Engineering is similar to the regular chemical and biochemical engineering curriculum except that there is no free choice of elective courses. There is no net heat exchange between the nonblack body and the cavity walls. Predication of mass transport properties. A widely used technique, the finned tube, is shown in Figure 8-14. As can be seen, the vapor from the stage below flows up into the slotted cap where it is bubbled into the liquid coming from the stage above.

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Show fur- ther that the total heat loss through both sides of the disk is and that the Nusselt number is given by Nu = 16/a = 5.09. II,5, Springer (1968-1969); International Critical Tables, McGraw-Hill, New York (1926); Y. F/Btu based on the inner pipe surface area. (c) Sketch the temperature profile in the exchanger. The mixture (both components at 50 mole percent) is to be flash distilled and differentially distilled.

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The terms in these charts are: T I, surface temperature; To, temperature at a given point at zero time; T, the temperature at that point when a time, t, has elapsed; a, the materials' thermal diffusivity; X I, a characteristic dimension (a radius, or half thickness); x,the position for TOand T; n, a dimensionless position k (XIX); m, a dimensionless function. - (the ratio of k to h (a film coefficient) hxl times X I ).

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Suggestion: Use as a criterion that the standard deviation of a pulse duration be no more than 5% of the cycle time to = 2n-/w, where w is the frequency it is desired to detect. 20C.5. For the algebraic method we have Then from equation (1 3-36) we have N o c = 1/(1 .346 ADDITIONAL STAGED OPERATIONS The Y* values corresponding to the X values are Xhottom = 0.0.006988) .0. = (Noc)(Hoc) = (11.0682)(0.(0.756 m) h .006988)/(0.

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The theory and use of numerical computational procedures to solve chemical and oil and gas engineering problems. Into this container, we add a few crystals of a solid chemical that will dissolve and color the water (i.e., such as potassium permanganate giving a purple color or a copper compound giving a green color). This approach uses the mass transfer coefficient as the means of finding the mass flux NA. We give the mass transfer expression here (rather than wait until Part 111) because electrochem- ical mass transfer experiments give better precision than heat transfer experiments and the available range of Schmidt numbers is much greater than that of Prandtl numbers.

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As can be seen, the papp a Newtonian is a constant. This store is a great place to discover deals. NON-NEWTONIAN FLUIDS 89 1 00 10’ 102 103 Ya = 1%) 1o4 105 106 Figure 4-2.) ~ I I I c 100 I00 I Re Figure 4-3. ). EFFECT OF TUBE ROUGHNESS 61 Re Figure 3-3.. ) .62 FRICTIONAL FLOW IN CONDUITS FLOW-THROUGH FITTINGS The modern chemical or petroleum processing facility is characterized by its complex piping layout. For com- pressible fluids, these may be expressed as in which the quantities ai = ( v ~ ) ~ / ( v ~ ) are included to allow for the replacement of the average of the cube by the cube of the average.. .

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Pump efficiency is 60%.59 atmosphere.008 m. one globe valve.45 megapascals. 3-4. Sd, = (1.5)(0.75) = 1.125 in S, = 3d, = (3.0)(0.75) = 2.25 in &IS, = 1.12512.25 = 0.5 (iii) (ii) In accordance with the recommendations for Eq. (12.161), the above numbers indicate a good geometric design. The pipe is surrounded by air at 1 atm and 80°F and its inner surface is at 250°F. (a) Compute the conductive heat flow per unit length, Q"""~'/L, through the pipe wall and insulation for as- sumed temperatures, To, of 100°F and 250°F at the outer surface of the aluminum foil. (b) Compute the radiative and free-convective heat losses, Q ( ~ ~ ~ ) / L and Q""""~/L, for the same assumed outer surface temperatures To. (c) Plot or interpolate the foregoing results to obtain the steady-state values of T, and Q"""~'/L = Q(rad)/L + Q(~O""' /L. 16C.1.

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CHAPTER 6 \ NOMENCLATURE A A A a B B C c CP D d E E Species A; Ai and AZ are species A at locations 1 and 2 Constant in velocity profile equation Example quantity to be averaged in Reynolds rules of averaging Empirical constant in Pai’s equations; subscripts 1, 2; see Eq. (6.113) Empirical constant in the logarithmic velocity distribution, Eq. (6.77) Example quantity to be averaged in Reynolds rules of averaging Instantaneous concentration (kmol md3, lb mol ft-‘); C,, Cn, Ci are concentrations of species A, B, i; CA,1 and C,,i are concentrations at locations 1 and 2; CA,w is time-averaged concentration of species A at the wall; CA,avc is bulk concentration of species A Constant of integration Heat capacity at constant pressure (kJ kg-’ K-‘, Btu lb;’ OF-‘); other subscripts defined as used Diffusion coefficient (mass diffusivity) (m’ s-l, ft* s-‘) Diameter (m, ft); d, is inside diameter of pipe, as used in fluid flow Eddy diifusivity (m*s-‘, ft*s-‘); E,, EM, EH are eddy diffusivities of momentum, mass, and heat, respectively Voltage 195 196 B A SIC CONCEPTS IN TRANSPORT PHENOMENA gc h Z i i k k k:: L 1 i I, kn N N Re II n P 4 r r s T T u Pipe roughness (m, ft); see Table 10.2 for more details Base of natural logarithms (2.718 2818.. .) Fanning friction factor, Eq. (6.89) Vector representing the acceleration due to a gravitational or other field (m s-‘, ft s-*) Gravitational conversion constant (32.174 lb,,, ft lb;’ s-*) Heat transfer coefficient, defined by Eq. (6.86) (W m-* K-l, Btu ft-* h-’ ‘F--l) Number of intervals during integration Intensity of turbulence, defined by Eq. (6.31) Unit vector in x direction Unit vector in y direction Unit vector in z direction Thermal conductivity (W m-i K-’ or J m-i K-’ s-l, Btu ft-’ OR-’ s-‘) Equimolar mass transfer coefficient, d e f i n e d b y E q. ( 6. 8 7 ) [kmol m-* s-l (km01 rnm3)-l, lb mol ft-* s-’ (lb mol ft-‘)-‘I Specific reaction rate constant in Eq. (4.108) or Eq. (6.45) Length (m, ft) Prandtl mixing length, cf.

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The z component of the fluid velocity at plane 2 is zero. The mass flow rate w is given by w = PLS (7.10) Since for this problem w, p, and S are all constant, CJ., is also constant, which makes the kinetic energy term zero [cf. Hooke, Lectures de Potentia Restifutiva (1678). * This relation was proposed by J. It may be hoped that some day there will be formulated a simple, completely smooth representation with a minimum of constants, or parameters, that meets all boundary conditions.

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The shear stress required to maintain the oscillatory motion will also be periodic in time and, in general, of the form T~~ = - q' yo cos of - q"jO sin wt (8.2-4) in which 77' and q" are the components of the complex viscosity, q* = q' - iq", which is a function of the frequency. Also determine that throughput in terms of weight of slurry fed per unit time. 14-58. They may also be involved in its daily operations. [35] Chemical engineers may be permanently employed at chemical plants to manage operations.